Plastic Surgery

Plastic and reconstructive surgery (reconstruction and repair Surgery)
Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery is a surgical branch that tries to correct congenital or acquired anomalies, deformities of shape and function and to correct the body image. Plastic is a word from the Greek "plasticos" and "shaping" means "making up a mold". Reconstructive is a Latin word and means "to do it again". 

Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery deals with all kinds of surgical problems that occur on the entire body surface. The events that disrupt the shape and function of the body can be congenital, traumatic or acquired. For example, congenital cleft palate-lip, ligament finger (syndactilia), vascular masses (hemangiomas); traumatic burns, traffic accidents related to facial injuries, various cuts and organ breaks; acquired skin and soft tissue tumors, chronic wounds are within this surgical field. Bone (especially the face-head and hand bones) and cartilage (cartilage of the ear and nose) losses, deformities, pathological events (tumors, cysts, infection, etc.) are also within the scope of plastic surgery. For this, in addition to conventional surgical methods, microsurgery, laser systems, endoscopy and various chemical agents and drugs can provide benefit. 

In summary, plastic and reconstructive surgery works to repair any defect (cavity) that affects the skin and bones on the entire body surface. In doing this, the basic rule is to repair the tissues that are lost with similar textures.

Areas of interest of plastic and Reconstructive Surgery:

*Facial deformities– Asymmetries, congenital masses, rare facial and palate
*Cleft lip-palate
*Craniofacial - maxillofacial abnormalities (e.g., jaw, face, and head bones deformities, irregularities, deficiencies)
*Orthognathic surgery (jaw closure disorders))
*Absence of ear lobe, ear lobe and other deformities 
*Nasal defects, tumors, ruptures
*Salivary gland problems
*Congenital tumor, nevus, masses, vascular malformations, hemangiomas
*Facial bone and soft tissue traumas
*Maxillofacial surgery (bone defects, fractures, deformities, jaw surgery) for traffic accidents, tumors and other reasons.
*Head and neck tumors and repair of their defects 
*Absence of breast tissue, asymmetry or excess breast tissue
*Breast reconstruction after cancer
*Gynecomastia (male large breast)
*Congenital anomalies of genital organs (Epispadias, hypospadias, vaginal agenesis, etc.)
*Repair of genital organs, replantation of broken organs, 
*Chest and abdominal wall defects
*Hand surgery (traumas, tumors, finger transfers, finger repair-extension, etc.)
*Deformities in the hands and feet (Both congenital or acquired)
*Peripheral nerve problems (traumas, neuropathies, defects, masses)
*Skin and soft tissue tumors
*Deformities after acute burns, contractions, shrinkage, damage to soft tissues of Electrical and chemical substances
*Various infections, radiation and other effects, skin and scalp wounds
*Chronic wounds (pressure sores, venous scars, diabetic foot wounds)

In plastic surgery, the rule for repair is first the choice of the simplest and less damaging method. If a scar is first treated (such as suturing), a graft (skin patch) application is considered. If this method is not appropriate (deep and complex tissue losses, Open bone and tendon injuries), flaps should be used. Flaps are planned according to the condition of the tissue defect and instead from local simple flaps (such as skin flap) to composite flaps (containing more than one tissue) in a proper flow chart. In plastic surgery, the basic rule is to repair the tissues closest to the lost tissues. In both plastic surgery and plastic surgery, autologous tissues (taken from the person's own) are used primarily. However, for autologous tissues, donor recipients or other resources may be used if the patient is unsuitable (Homogrefts, heterogrefts and alloplastic materials). For example, skin grafts (skin patches) taken from the patient's healthy areas are preferred primarily on wide burns. If these areas are insufficient, they can be used as homogreft and even heterogreft from animals. Except for autografts, they are used as temporary biological cover in humans, and they are not subject to injury. Another example may be given for bone loss. Bone loss in the face is primarily taken from other body regions and applied to the region that is defective. However, if this source is inadequate or unavailable, alloplastic materials (porosity polyethylene, hydroxyapatite, titanium, etc.) may be used.

Aesthetic Surgery (Cosmetic Surgery)

Plastic surgery is a side branch. Aesthetic (or cosmetic) surgery deals with operations and initiatives to make the body image more beautiful and perfect. There are more aesthetic problems than medical problems here. In the media, the news about the aesthetic aspect of plastic surgery takes place more, and perhaps for this reason, public plastic surgeons only perceive as individuals who perform Aesthetic Surgery. 

All plastic surgeons are trained in plastic surgery at the same time during their specialty training and are the only qualified surgeons to perform these operations. Plastic surgery requires a long training and experience. Such operations require both surgical and artistic skills. Aesthetic Surgery is not always aesthetic, sometimes medical problems are solved. For example, the surgical correction of an overweight body or large breasts (gigantomastia), which are enlarged in size, solves both medical and aesthetic problems together. Besides correcting the aesthetic function of an organ is also extremely important. For example: in rhinoplasty, the shape and breathing problems should be corrected together. 

In our country, breast aesthetic surgery (augmentation-reduction), nose aesthetic surgery (rhinoplasty), body contouring surgery (liposuction, lipectomy, abdominoplasty), face lift, eyelid surgery (blepharoplasty), ear flap correction (scoop ear) are among the plastic operations performed frequently.

For aesthetic surgical operations, you should consult with specialist plastic surgeons. Medical, ethical, and forensic studies of doctors in other areas create many problems and patients in non-skilled hands are faced with very difficult complications to correct. For this reason, it will be in the best interest of the patients to apply “plastic and Aesthetic Surgeons” when selecting surgeons regarding the above problems.

Areas of Aesthetic Surgery

*Aesthetic and functional nose correction (rhinoplasty, septoplasty))
*Facial rejuvenation (face lift - revision of eyelid and around the mouth, treatment of wrinkles)
*Endoscopic face-forehead lifting, brow removal
*Eyelid surgery (Blepharoplasty)
*Aesthetic correction of the ears and other ear problems ,
*Chin augmentation and reduction operations (Mentoplasty),
*Skin scar (scar) and elimination of irregularities, 
*Hair transplantation - replacements
*Laser applications (Face peeling, removal of stains and vascular malformations
*Aesthetic breast surgery :Augmentation, reduction and lift
*Operations to reduce excess skin-subcutaneous fat tissue (liposuction - lipectomy))
*Abdominoplasty (tummy tuck))
*Leg contour correction (with fat removal, injections or leg implants)) 
*Contour Corrections with implants (soft tissue prosthesis) (hip and thigh implants, pectoral (breast) implants in men - such as leg implants) 
*Skin care and initiatives 

In Aesthetic Surgery, operative and non-operative methods can be applied together or separately to achieve the goal. For example, in facial rejuvenation, first face lift (ritidectomy= face lift) is done and then chemical peel for fine lines and spots (peeling) and fillers can be injected. It should be noted that aesthetic problems that require surgery (such as sagging skin, regional fat collections, hypertrophic breast) can only be resolved by operative methods. In place of the operation, some methods that have not yet been scientifically proven and are usually applied by people other than plastic surgeons (mesotherapy, carboxyterapi etc.) do not provide a significant benefit to patients. 

Apart from the major operations listed above in Aesthetic Surgery, Skin Peel procedures for spots, fine wrinkles, acne or old scars (laser, chemical or mechanical peeling), fat injections for pitting and contouring disorders (lipofilling), astringent scars and fillers for wrinkles (such as collagen, hyaluronic acid); applications for forehead and eye contour lines, lip augmentation, oil and a variety of fillers are used.